Although food security has been investigated in the Philippines for the past 25 years, analysis tends to focus primarily on linking dietary requirements to poverty. While this form of assessment has provided food insecurity indexes, it does not address the multifaceted nature of food security in the province of Cavite. According to Department of Tourism, Cavite province has one of the highest annual population growth rates at 6.47% and population density of about 10.16 persons per hectare. Due to rapid industrialization and migration from NCR, it is expected that population in Cavite province will continue to increase in the next couple of years.
In the housing market, evidence shows that affordability problems, credit risks and information asymmetry has produced a market failure and justifies government intervention. There have been suggestions on the form the intervention may take: housing subsidies and community mortgage programs. While these interventions may provide access to low income groups, they do not address the larger issues of sustainability in the context of increased demand for housing in Cavite.
Community development, Urbanization and Migration
The province of Cavite is expected to experience massive population increase due to Cavite’s high birth rate and proximity to NCR. As the NCR population expands,suburbanization process will intensify. As migration from NCR to Cavite province increases, less agricultural land will be available for cultivation which may threaten food security and contribute to high unemployment rates. Ultimately, the attendant problems of overcrowding, decreasing arable land, poverty and pressure on the infrastructure must be addressed.
Garbage disposal is one of the most serious problems in urban centers in the Philippines despite the existence of different laws and policies governing such. In Cavite, the local government prepared the Environmental Code under the Provincial Ordinance No. 43-S-2008. Among the salient features of the code are articles on waste management, air and noise pollution management and environmental impact assessment, among others. Despite the existence of environmental code and regulations, garbage disposal in Cavite remains a big concern.
Environment, Health and Safety
One way to jumpstart environmental issues is to make the community part of the problem-solving process. Hence, a key component may include but not limited to awareness in health and safety at the community level; and empowerment of the local communities to manage their indigenous natural resources on a sustainable basis for their own benefit and economic development.
Among the bodies of water, rivers have been the most important water body to many human activities such as fishing, irrigation, transportation, bathing and recreation, and even waste disposal. Region IV has the biggest number of classified water bodies with 88 and 40 principal bodies of water. Despite the huge water resources, Cavite faces problems in terms of water quality. The Imus river alone, classified as class C failed in terms of its Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), which implies that a significant component of the riverine system cannot sustain its biological resources.
Climate change, biodiversity conservation and food safety
With modern technology and development, the demands of the growing human population and man’s wasteful and unsustainable use of earth’s resources have dramatically affected the climatic condition of the earth. These have caused the vast release of carbon in the atmosphere which eventually causes an imbalance with carbon usage, thereby resulting in climate change. Climate change affects the marine and terrestrial life and their biodiversity. This eventually affects plant growth, animal farm and agricultural production, which put food security at stake.
Floods are caused by a variety of factors, both natural and man-made. The perennial problem of flooding in low lying areas is brought by improper disposal of rubbish in residential areas. Overpopulation and conversion of land to an impervious surface in an urbanized area may significantly reduce groundwater recharge and affect the balance of hydrologic cycle. Cavite being one of the fastest growing urbanized centers in the Philippines is expected to experience severe flood crisis as population growth and surburbanization intensifies.